Realization of training goals

Realization of training goals

According to popular theory:

Sets of one to five repetitions primarily develop strength, with more impact on muscle size and none on endurance.

Sets of six to twelve repetitions develop a balance of strength, muscle size and endurance.

Sets of thirteen to twenty repetitions develop endurance, with some increases to muscle size and limited impact on strength.[4]

Sets of more than twenty repetitions are considered to be focused on aerobic exercise. They do still use the anaerobic system, but usually at a rate through which it can consistently remove the lactic acid generated from it.

Individuals typically perform one to six sets per exercise, and one to three exercises per muscle group, with short breaks between each set - the specific combinations of reps, exercises, sets and break duration depends on the goals of the individual program. The duration of these breaks determines which energy system the body utilizes. Performing a series of exercises with little or no rest between them, referred to as "circuit training", will draw energy mostly from the aerobic energy system. Brief bursts of exercise, separated by breaks, are fueled by anaerobic systems, which use either phosphagens or glycolysis.

For developing endurance, gradual increases in volume and gradual decreases in intensity is the most effective program.[5]

It has been shown that for beginners, multiple-set training offers minimal benefits over single-set training with respect to either strength gain or muscle mass increase, but for the experienced athlete multiple-set systems are required for optimal progress.[4][6][7] However, one study shows that for leg muscles, three sets are more effective than one set.[8]

Beginning weight-trainers are in the process of training the neurological aspects of strength[citation needed], the ability of the brain to generate a rate of neuronal action potentials that will produce a muscular contraction that is close to the maximum of the muscle's potential.

Variable

Training goal

Strength

Power

Hypertrophy

Endurance

Load (% of 1RM)

80-90

45-55

60-80

40-60

Reps per set

1-5

1-5

6-12

15-60

Sets per exercise

4-7

3-5

4-8

2-4

Rest between sets (mins)

2-6

2-6

2-5

1-2

Duration (seconds per set)

5-10

4-8

20-60

80-150

Speed per rep (% of max)

60-100

90-100

60-90

60-80

Training sessions per week

3-6

3-6

5-7

8-14

Table reproduced from Siff, 2003[9]

Weights for each exercise should be chosen so that the desired number of repetitions can just be achieved

Type

High

Med

Low

Intensity (% of 1RM)

80-100%

50-70%

10-40%

Volume (per muscle)

1 exercise

2 exercises

3+ exercises

Sets

1 set

2-3 sets

4+ sets

Reps

1-6 reps

8-15 reps

20+ reps

Session Frequency

1 p/w

2-3 p/w

4+ p/w

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